Crossed or misaligned eyes (strabismus) can have different causes, such as problems with muscle control in the affected eye or eyes. If strabismus persists in young children, a condition known as lazy eye or amblyopia can develop along with related vision problems.


Types of Squint

Exotropia: Eyes are turned out. These can be of three types based on frequency of squinting. They are 1. Constant (present always) 2. Alternating (squinting seen in both eyes alternately) 3. Intermittent (occasional).

Management of squint based on type of squint.

Esotropia: Eyes are turned in. Here again there are constant and intermittent squint types.

Hypertropia : One of the eyes turn up. It can be constant or occasional

Hypotropia: One of the eyes turn down. It also can be constant and occasional.


Causes of Squint

Paralysis of any muscle that controls eye movements.

Palsy of any nerve that supply to one of the six muscles of eye.

High refractive error (Myopia/Hypermetropia) which is uncorrected for a long period of time.

Any sensory deficit (i.e. Cataract/corneal opacity which causes obstruction of light into the eye).

Any injury to the eye.



During the early stages, if the squinting is due to any uncorrected refractive errors, it can be rectified with spectacles.

If there is any paralysis of muscle involved, spectacles alone cannot reduce squinting of eyes. In such cases, surgery also required.

If it is a long standing squint with poor vision, surgery can be done for cosmoses purpose.

If squinting occurred as a result of any sensory deficit, treatment of the cause can help in reducing squinting of eyes (i.e. removal of cataractous lens and implantation of new IOL can bring back the crossed eyes to its position).

If squinting occurred as a result of any injury (which is an acquired cause), person might experience double vision. Double can be reduced using prism correction. If still symptoms present surgery is the only option based on the eye condition.

Some of the nerve palsies which are also acquired in nature can be tried with prisms first before surgery.