Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a condition in which the eye pressure, also known as intra-ocular pressure (IOP), is too high for a given eye and thus causes damage to the optic nerve of that eye. This results in progressive loss of peripheral or side vision. glaucomatous field defect

glaucomatous field defect

 

Types of glaucoma

Chronic open angle glaucoma: It damages the eye with no warning signs. It is the most common type of glaucoma and is often referred to as “silent type”. Damage of optic nerve occurs over time, usually without notice.

Normal optic nerve glaucomatous optic nerve

Acute closed angle glaucoma: Closed angle glaucoma happens quickly. This occurs when the normal fluid flow (aqueous humor) gets blocked. An “attack” any produce a red, painful eye and symptoms such as facial pain, headache, and blurry vision, rainbow-colored haloes around lights, nausea and vomiting. Damage will be severe in this case. It is a medical emergency.

Normal drainage channel Acute angle closure

 

Symptoms of glaucoma:

It has been named “sneak thief of sight” because it often goes undetected and causes irreversible damage to the eye. There are no symptoms in the early stages of the disease.

Ø It causes no pain, and vision stays normal.

Ø If untreated, vision worsens. Peripheral vision (to the sides) is usually the first to deteriorate.

Ø Thus people may miss objects to the side and out of the corner of the eye.

Ø Difficulty in crossing the roads.

Ø If still untreated, vision reduces until no vision remains.

Ø Vision once lost, cannot be regained at all.

side vision difficulty in glaucoma

Treatment:

Early detection can only stop further nerve damage and prevent blindness by proper treatment.

Ø Medications for lifetime.

Ø Laser procedures: A laser is also sometimes used to make a small hole in the colored part of the eye (the iris) to allow the aqueous fluid to flow more freely within the eye. It is a painless procedure, takes only 10-20 minutes, in out patient facility.

Ø Incisional surgery: Incisional surgery may be performed if medication and initial laser treatments are unsuccessful in reducing pressure within the eye.